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Nutrition Topics Nutrition ProductsRecipesVitamins & MineralsWeight Management Latest in Nutrition WEB SERIES Maximum Wellness Workout Wednesday LATEST IN WEB SERIES Shop SHOP Bars & Drinks Bundle & Save Diet & Energy Essential Oils Fitness Accessories Joints Support & Omegas Lab Tests Men's Health On Sale Products Performance Probiotics & Digestion Protein Superfoods & Plant Based Targeted Health Training Programs Vitamins & Minerals Women's Health LATEST PRODUCTS Fitness Fitness Topics Performance Recovery Fitness Essential Amino Acids Support Muscle Protein Synthesis Fitness Maximizing Recovery After Training & Competition Fitness The Keto Diet Plan May Benefit Body Builders Fitness High Intensity Interval Exercise VS Moderate Intensity, Continuous Training Health & Wellness Top Five Tips to Avoid Training too Much Fitness Vitamins and Minerals to Improve Adolescent Fitness Latest in Fitness Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Topics Health & Wellness Products Immunity Men's Health Women's Health Health & Wellness Nutritional Factors May Modify Risk to Covid-19 Health & Wellness COVID-19: Vitamin D May Modulate Risk & Severity Health & Wellness Fish Oil Lowers Cardiovascular Disease Risk Health & Wellness Teenagers Top Five Foods for Success Health & Wellness Research Confirms Optimum Vitamin D Blood Values Vitamins & Minerals Are Multivitamins Right for You? Latest in Health & Wellness Nutrition Nutrition Topics Nutrition Products Recipes Vitamins & Minerals Weight Management Nutrition Top Five Foods to Fight Inflammation Recipes High Protein Blue Berry Pancakes Nutrition The Top Five Healthy Foods for Women High Protein Recipes Egg & Turkey Stuffed Peppers Low Carb Recipes Hearty Breakfast Sausage Nutrition Are Cleansing Supplements Right for You? Latest in Nutrition WEB SERIES WEB SERIESpodcastsMaximum Wellness podcastsWorkout Wednesday LATEST IN WEB SERIES Maximum Wellness Maximum Wellness, Episode 24: How Much Sodium Is Too Much? Date December 3, 2019 Research has pointed for some time to a strong relationship between a high sodium intake – greater than 5 grams per day – to the increased risk to high blood pressure (BP) and the potential for the associated cardiovascular complications. The DASH diet (dietary approach to stop hypertension) recommends that those individual with, or at risk to high BP keep their daily sodium intake to less than 1500 milligrams (Mg) – with a general recommendation to less than 2000 Mg. Researchers from Italy reporting – Sodium Intake and Hypertension – in the September 2019 issue of the journal Nutrients – comment that, “excessive salt intake may induce several adverse effects, causing microvascular endothelial inflammation, anatomic remodeling, and functional abnormalities, even in normotensive subjects” In addition, “more recent studies have shown that changes in sodium plasma levels do not only exert their effects on small resistance arteries, but also may affect the function and structure of large elastic arteries.” Adding to the controversy over how much sodium is too much or not enough, the Italian researchers note that, “recent findings further support the calls for caution before applying salt restriction universally. Although more studies have confirmed the benefit of reducing sodium intake in hypertensive subjects with a high salt intake, it is unclear whether the remaining more than 90% of the population will profit from dietary sodium reduction.” They point out the need to clarify “inappropriate” versus “excessive” salt intake. As we age, the hypertensive effects of increased sodium intake increases, which is the result of a decrease in the kidney’s ability to concentrate sodium in the urine, which is likely due to a decline in the aging glomerular mass. Chronic kidney disease can also lead to an impairment of volume excretion and urine sodium-concentrating ability – thus enhancing the salt-sensitivity in its more severe forms. It appears that individuals from African descent are at an increased risk for hypertension, despite possessing a plasma volume and cardiac index similar to white population. Waist circumferences greater than 40 inches – moving toward 50 – and metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, are associated with an increased rate of sodium reabsorption by the kidney, an effect that is at least partially mediated by the hormones insulin and leptin – an adipocytokine produced by fat cells that affect appetite regulation. Excess visceral fat – abdominal obesity – can create leptin resistance, which goes hand in glove with insulin resistance. Sodium intake worldwide ranges between 3.5–5.5 g per day (corresponding to 9?12 g of salt per day). The World Health Organization has recommended to limit sodium intake to approximately 2.0 g per day (equivalent to approximately 5.0 g salt per day) in the general population – with a concerted effort, note the researchers, to reducing salt intake in the hypertensive population – roughly more than a billion patients globally. The Italians state that, “a reduction in salt intake can have a favorable effect on the cardiovascular system, inducing a reduction in BP values in hypertensive patients, but also with possible benefits in the vascular function and in the viscoelastic properties of the large arteries.” Remember, you should always consult your physician before beginning any exercise, diet, or nutritional supplementation program.