Benefits of Each Ingredient
- Supports vision health, skin health, and immune health, and increases antioxidant support (182, 183).
- Supports antioxidant function via decreased inflammatory cytokines (inflammation), decreased reactive oxygen species, and increased l-glutathione production (master antioxidant) (182,183).
- Supports visual health via increased amounts of plasma vitamin A in macular (eye) tissues (182,183).
- Supports immune, cardiovascular, skin, cognitive, fat-burning, and digestive health (97, 98).
- Supports immune health via increased oxidant, free radical scavenging, and fueling neutrophilic (immune cell) activity in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbial killing (97,98).
- Supports fat burning by increasing carnitine biosynthesis (molecule required for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation) (97,98).
- Supports accelerate bone healing after a fracture, increase type I collagen synthesis, and reduce oxidative stress (inflammation) (98).
- Supports exercise performance, immune health, muscle growth, optimal bone health, hormonal health, immune function, increased sexual health, cardiovascular health, glucose tolerance, strength, and positive mood (77,78,79).
- Supports hormonal health via high amounts of vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity in hormone-based negative feedback loop reactions (77,78).
- Supports cardiovascular health via improved absorption of calcium, reduced atherosclerotic activity, stimulating cardiomyocytes, and improved vascular health (77,78).
- Supports exercise performance via reduced exercise-associated inflammation and muscle damage (77,78).
- Supports sexual health via increased activity of Vitamin D receptor activity of testosterone production (79).
- Supports immune function via decreases of inflammatory cytokines and aiding immune cells (77,78).
- Supports joint health via regulating calcium and phosphorus and bone remodeling along with other calcium-regulating actions (77,78).
- Supports immune function, cognitive health, cardiovascular health, and bone health (204,205,206,207,208)
- Supports immune health via neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species, and increases T lymphocyte-mediated immune function (204).
- Supports cardiovascular health via reduced cholesterol (204).
- Supports cognitive function via reduced oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage of neuronal tissues (208).
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
- Supports aerobic energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation), cell growth, optimal neuronal conduction (nerve impulses), and cardiovascular health (94).
- Supports cardiovascular function and aids as a neuroprotective agent in individuals with vitamin B-1 deficiencies (94, 95).
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
- Supports conversion and activation of other B vitamins, and red blood cell production and serves as a cofactor for both glucose and fat metabolism (energy production) (92,93).
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
- Major B vitamin that supports cardiovascular health by inhibiting hepatic(liver) triglyceride synthesis, reducing very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, and increasing HDL plasma concentrations (8).
- Reduces conversion of VLDL into LDL proteins and serum lipoprotein concentrations in plasma (blood) (8).
- Vital for regulation of gene expression, cell cycle progression, and DNA repair, and cell death (8).
- Supports healthy inflammatory response via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic (prevention of cell death) properties (8).
- Prevents pathologies(diseases) such as Pellagra and reduces the prevalence of nervous anorexia, cancer, and Crohn’s disease (9, 10).
- Supports sensitization of tumors to radiation via apoptosis (cell death) cascade of tumor mass and improves oxygen delivery to malignant tissues (cancer cells) (11).
- Supports cognitive health by reducing age-related decline of NAD+, increasing quinolinic acid, and reducing neuroinflammation (8).
- Increased niacin-associated NAD+ levels have been shown to increase neurotransmission, learning, and memory (8).
- Niacin reduces the prevalence of neurodegenerative pathologies by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction (8).
- Serves as a cofactor in more than 150 enzymatic reactions associated with blood sugar regulation, immunity, cardiovascular function, neuronal health, metabolic and digestive health (38, 40).
- Reduces plasma glucose (blood sugar levels) by inhibiting the activity of small-intestinal α-glucosidases (enzymes associated with glucose metabolism) (39).
- Functions as an antioxidant by counteracting the formation of reactive oxygen species (inflammatory markers) and advanced glycation end-products (38,40).
- May support blood sugar regulation in women with gestational diabetes (40).
- Cofactor for enzymes involved in DNA metabolism (40).
- May support proper cell growth and DNA synthesis (65).
- Supports the conversion of food into cellular energy, hair health, skin health, and cognitive function (213,214).
- Enhances glucose breakdown into skeletal muscle tissue (213,214).
- Supports energy production, cell growth, cell repair, cognitive function, increased hippocampal volume (memory), and optimized bioenergetics (burning of carbohydrates, fat, and protein) (96).
- Supports bone health, muscle function, and cardiovascular health (36,37).
- Regulates processes of bone resorption, mineralization, and fracture repair (36,37).
- Increases the effect of physical exercise on bone mineral acquisition in the period preceding puberty (36,37).
- Prevents the development of preeclampsia (36,37).
- Supports red blood cell formation, immune function, and antioxidant support (215,216).
- May increase oxygen uptake into red blood cells of iron-deficient individuals (215,216).
- May support the gut health of iron-deficient individuals.
- Combats anemia in iron-deficient individuals (217).
- Supports optimal nerve function, muscle contractions, cardiovascular, and bone health, and decreased anxiety (90,91).
- Supports biological reactions such as ATP-fueled reactions and pancreatic insulin secretion (90,91).
- Supports reduction of systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and healthy HDL levels (90,91).
- Reduces peripheral cortisol levels in the CNS and supports relaxation and decreased anxiety (90,91).
- Supports immune function, skin health, cognitive function, and vision (172,173).
- Supports stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune system (172,173).
- Supports the activation of lymphocytes and activation of innate and T cell-mediated immunity (172,173).
- Supports cognitive function by modulation of neuronal signaling in areas of the brain associated with memory and learning (hippocampus) (172,173).
- Supports antioxidant function, cardiovascular health, cognitive function, thyroid health, and immune health (145, 146).
- Combats atherosclerosis, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), and type 1 diabetes (147).
- Supports thyroid health via decreased circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) (146).
- Increases the activity of selenoproteins that decrease reactive oxygen species (inflammation), increase natural killer activity, and increase glutathione (master antioxidant) levels (145,147).
- Supports enzymatic antioxidant reactions, increased bone mineral density, and blood sugar regulation (148,149).
- Supports insulin function, reduces cholesterol, improves blood sugar regulation, and may lower cholesterol (218,219).
- Increases enzymatic reactions involved in sulfite metabolism and detoxification (150).
- Increases acetylcholine levels in the brain.
- The most abundant amino acid in skeletal muscle fuels immune cells, improves exercise recovery, and optimizes the gut microbiome (17).
- Vital for lymphocyte (immune cell) proliferation (growth) and paramount in neutrophil (immune cell) destruction of bacteria (17).
- Vital for activation of genetic signals that support immune function and vitality (17).
- Glutamine is utilized by immune cells at high rates during catabolic conditions (post-surgery, sepsis, burns, and extreme exercise (17).
- Supports cognitive function and focus (220).
Green Tea Extract
- A potent polyphenolic antioxidant that supports blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic health (26).
- High in ECGC (epigallocatechin gallate) (26).
- ECGC is shown to reduce body fat mass, increase fat oxidation(burning), and increase caloric expenditure during exercise (25).
- Potent anti-inflammatory compound supporting glutathione production and inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers (cytokines) (26).
- Reduces oxidative stress (chronic inflammation in the body) (26).
- Essential for cell membrane integrity, cell messaging, fat metabolism, DNA synthesis, immune support, and nervous system function (62,63).
- Serves as a methyl donor and as a precursor for the production of cell membranes (62).
- Precursor for acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) which activates receptors in the central nervous system-mediated immune responses (α7nAchR) (64).
- Lifelong choline supplementation may combat neurodegenerative diseases by reducing amyloid-β plaque load (plaques of degrading neurons) (62).
- Reduces the concentration of total homocysteine (inflammation marker) in individuals with low levels of folate and other B vitamins (B₂, B₆, and B₁₂) (62).
- Supports liver detoxification, combats metabolic syndrome, and aids as an antioxidant (221).
- Combats metabolic syndrome via reduced levels of triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol (221).
- Supports antioxidant function via reduced levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory markers (interleukin 6) (222).
- Supports memory, cognitive flexibility, the executive function of the brain, and convergent thinking (60).
- The precursor to dopamine and is vital for dopamine synthesis in the brain (60).
- Supports cognitive function in individuals with high amounts of stress and anxiety (60,61).
- Increases dopamine levels in highly stressed individuals (60).
- Supports vision health, cardiovascular function, increased nitric oxide production, and antioxidant support (223,224).
Grape Seed Extract
- Supports increased nitric oxide production, reduces blood pressure, reduces DNA damage, increases collagen production, increases bone strength, and aids as a neuroprotective agent (31).
- Supports antioxidant function via modulation of antioxidant enzyme expression, protection against oxidative damage, and reduced reactive oxygen species (31).
- Supports cardiovascular health via reduced atherosclerosis, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and improved endothelial vascular function (31).
- Supports cardiovascular health, antioxidant function, and controlled blood sugar levels (224).
- Supports Cardiovascular health via reduction of systolic BP, LDL, and inflammatory biomarkers (224).
- Supports antioxidant function via anti-inflammatory polyphenols that protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals (225).
- Combats major inflammatory pathways via anti-inflammatory change involving inflammation pathway (NF-κB inhibition) (225).
- Supports blood sugar regulation via improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell (cells responsible for secreting insulin) secretory capacity (226).
- Supports anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, and antimicrobial properties (177).
- Supports increased bone mineral density, muscle function, hormonal balance, and immune function (180).
DHA (Fish Oil)
- Vital for optimal cardiovascular, hormonal, immune, cognitive, digestive health, and recovery from exercise (73,74,76).
- Fish oil consumption of 6 grams per day has been shown to reduce inflammation, reduce muscle soreness, and reduce the perception of pain in exercising individuals (76).
- Increases skeletal muscle hypertrophy than individuals consuming only whey protein post-exercise (76).
- Supports cardiovascular health by decreasing atrial fibrillation, atherosclerosis (plaque buildup), thrombosis, and blood pressure, and supporting blood lipid profiles (cholesterol panel) (73,74,75).
- Lowers blood pressure via increased production nitric oxide production and induced endothelial relaxation (75).
- Supports healthy information by decreasing c-reactive protein (inflammatory markers) in the body and increasing insulin sensitivity (75,76).
- Supports cognitive health by increasing the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in the cell membranes of the cerebral cortex and synaptic vesicles (76).
- Supports blood sugar regulation via improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-cell function (cells that produce insulin) (227).
- Supports cognitive function, memory, and focus, and reduces stress (228,229).
- Reduces prevalence of short-term memory loss in ADHD patients improves prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal cells function (228).
- Increases dopamine and acetylcholine release via maintenance of acetylcholine supply (228).
- Reduces cortisol levels in the frontal Brian regions during stressful activity (228,229).
- Supports cognitive function, memory, focus, and combats neurodegenerative disease (230).
- Combats neurodegenerative disease via improvement of cognitive function, daily living activity, and global clinical assessment in participants with Alzheimer’s disease (230).