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Nutrition Topics Nutrition ProductsRecipesVitamins & MineralsWeight Management Latest in Nutrition WEB SERIES Maximum Wellness Workout Wednesday LATEST IN WEB SERIES Shop SHOP At Home Lab Tests Bars & Drinks Bundle & Save CBD Diet & Weight Management Essential Oils & Aromatherapy Fitness Accessories Immunity & Wellness Joints Support & Omegas Men's Health On Sale Products Performance & Recovery Probiotics & Digestion Protein Superfoods & Plant Based Targeted Health Women's Health LATEST PRODUCTS Fitness Fitness Topics Performance Recovery Fitness Essential Amino Acids Support Muscle Protein Synthesis Fitness Maximizing Recovery After Training & Competition Fitness The Keto Diet Plan May Benefit Body Builders Fitness High Intensity Interval Exercise VS Moderate Intensity, Continuous Training Health & Wellness Top Five Tips to Avoid Training too Much Fitness Vitamins and Minerals to Improve Adolescent Fitness Latest in Fitness Health & Wellness Health & Wellness Topics Health & Wellness Products Immunity Men's Health Women's Health Health & Wellness Nutritional Factors May Modify Risk to Covid-19 Health & Wellness COVID-19: Vitamin D May Modulate Risk & Severity Health & Wellness Fish Oil Lowers Cardiovascular Disease Risk Health & Wellness Teenagers Top Five Foods for Success Health & Wellness Research Confirms Optimum Vitamin D Blood Values Vitamins & Minerals Are Multivitamins Right for You? Latest in Health & Wellness Nutrition Nutrition Topics Nutrition Products Recipes Vitamins & Minerals Weight Management Nutrition Top Five Foods to Fight Inflammation Recipes High Protein Blue Berry Pancakes Nutrition The Top Five Healthy Foods for Women High Protein Recipes Egg & Turkey Stuffed Peppers Low Carb Recipes Hearty Breakfast Sausage Nutrition Are Cleansing Supplements Right for You? Latest in Nutrition WEB SERIES WEB SERIESpodcastsMaximum Wellness podcastsWorkout Wednesday LATEST IN WEB SERIES Maximum Wellness Maximum Wellness, Episode 35: Endurance Exercise & Strength Training Improves Skeletal Muscle Metabolism Date February 26, 2020 As we age, especially after 60, our body is exposed to the effects of sarcopenia, the aging loss of muscle, dynapenia, the resulting loss of strength, and anabolic resistance – reduced skeletal muscle repair—especially after intense exercise. Aging is also associated with both glucose and insulin resistance—increasing the risk to type 2 diabetes. Add to this complication the potential to increase the inflammatory response to a high sugar/fat Western-type diet, then aging increases the associated risk to atherosclerotic disease, which has been called an inflammatory disease of the arteries. Researchers from Ohio University writing “Impact of Endurance and Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle Glucose Metabolism in Older Adults,” which appeared in the November 2019 issue of the online journal Nutrients—state, “age-associated muscle atrophy begins as early as 25 years of age and accelerates thereafter, so that, by 80 years of age, approximately 40% of the vastus lateralis (muscle in the thigh) has been lost.” Further, “much of the current literature discussing age-related loss of muscle mass focuses on the adverse effects to muscular strength and power, leading to loss of mobility and the inability to perform daily activities, including climbing stairs and lifting objects,” the Ohio researchers added. The aging process targets type 2 glycolytic fibers – yielding an impaired glucose metabolism compared to a younger individual. One manner of addressing this short coming is through physical activity. The researchers cite, “the Harvard Alumni Health Study, (which) suggested that older men (mean age: 66 years) without a major health risk could reduce their risk of dying by becoming a ‘weekend warrior’ (at least 1000 kcal/week), suggesting that even one to two exercise sessions a week can prolong a person’s lifespan. Older adults who have been physically active throughout their lifetime have been found to have superior levels of metabolic health, compared to inactive older adults.” Specifically, higher intensity exercise, without weight loss, has been reported to improve whole-body insulin sensitivity, which means less storage of body fat—the result of better glycogen storage in muscle. Also beneficial is resistance training in older individuals. The Ohio investigators note research which, “reported that 16 weeks of resistance training in men between the ages of 50 and 63 increased insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose disposal by 40%, likely contributing to the improved whole-body insulin sensitivity (22%), and suggesting resistance training could improve skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism.” This effect is especially true in older adults, who suffer from type 2 diabetes. For postmenopausal women, the research points to improved mitochondrial (the muscle spark plug) area and density, with 6 months of progressive resistance training. The researchers comment that collectively, “these findings suggest that older adults may be especially responsive to mitochondrial adaptations with resistance training, including changes that would permit improved insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose oxidation.” Among other summaries, it was concluded that, “while both types of exercise – endurance and resistance training – generally increase insulin sensitivity in older adults, the metabolic pathways through which this occurs can differ and can be dependent on preexisting conditions including obesity and type 2 diabetes.” It makes sense to begin a structured exercise program at a young age. However, it’s never too late to take back ownership of your health—move it, push it, pull it, and press it. Remember, you should always consult your physician before beginning any exercise, diet, or nutritional supplementation program.